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Главная страницаEcologyAbout CompanyCompany NewsThe role of exogenous factors in the functioning of heosystems as an example of human impact

The role of exogenous factors in the functioning of heosystems as an example of human impact

The role of exogenous factors in the functioning of geosystems as an example of human impact

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The role of exogenous factors in the functioning of geosystems as an example of human impact

Mining industry, based on the mining of mineral deposits, is one of the most intensive sources of man impact on the environment. More than 10,000 deposits were found out in the depths of Belarus. The mining of mineral resources leads to the complete destruction of natural physical landscapes, changes natural conditions of groundwater, has negative influence on the atmosphere (pollutes it) and biosphere (removes natural layer, destroys vegetation, and makes animals and bird leave their habitat). The degree of such impact depends on mining method and mineral output in many ways. In the Republic of Belarus such mining methods as open-pit, borehole and shaft are used because of mining and geological conditions of mineral occurrence.

Any open pit's design is accompanied by the development of the “Environmental Protection” section. The “Environmental Impact Assessment” (EIA) section is developed for the objects of open-cast mining of minerals, except peat, with the surface area of the mining field of 20 hectares or more, and for the objects of peat digging with the surface area of the mining field of 250 hectares or more. Moreover, the size of sanitary protection zone, ranging from 500 to 100 meters, is defined.

In Belarus, the coffins which do essential harm to the environment are a serious problem, connected with the exploitation of the mineral wealth. As a rule, landscape changes, deterioration of soil quality, changes in hydrological and hydrogeological conditions, the pollution of underground aquifers, and the changes in water conditions of surrounding areas and water flow alteration are observed within the territory of a coffin.

Thereby, abandoned intrafarm and industrial open pits turn into wastelands, dumps, and solid domestic waste landfill. The pollution of soil, groundwater, and air is the result of it. The restoration and reusability of such areas requires great expenses. It should be noticed that suffers not only the nature, but also the people who live nearby such landfills.

At the present time, 2,188 open pits are used, including 442 industrial and 1,746 intrafarm. Of the total number of all intrafarm open pits, existing in the country, 1,698 open pits in area of 1,770.6 hectares are constantly used by agricultural organizations. 35 intrafarm open pits haven"t been used for more than three years. The maximum number of intrafarm open pits is located in the Brest region – 409, the minimum – 200 - in the Mogilev region.

 

 

Cement quarry  

 

The main solution to the restoration of the lands is recultivation. Recultivation is a range of works, carried out in order to restore the derelict lands and make them secure. Recultivation is performed in consecutive order, step-by-step. There are three types of recultivation: technical, biological, and constructional.

Technical recultivation is a preliminary preparation of derelict lands for further use. These works include land formation, removal of land, transport and application of rich soil to recultivating lands, formatting of slopes and excavations. At this stage of recultivation, open pit, constructional and other excavations are filled up, water reservoirs are placed in deep open pits, waste banks and dumps are completely or partially dismantled, and mined out underground space is filled with dead rock. The surface of the land is made even after the settling process has been over.

Due to mine technical recultivation, the partial return of territories to intrafarm use is possible. However, mine technical recultivation doesn"t solve all environmental problems that arise after the exploitation of the mineral wealth has been over. Therefore there exists a biological recultivation, which carries out the restoration of soil covering.

Biological recultivation is carried out after the technical one to create a vegetative cover on prepared areas. It helps to restore the productivity of derelict lands, to form a green landscape, to create habitats for animals, birds, and microorganisms; to embed fill-up ground to prevent them from water and wind erosion; to create hay land and rangelands. The biological recultivation works are based on the knowledge of syngenetic process. Under fair conditions, the recultivation of derelict lands is carried out according to one prevailing type: hydroeconomic, recreational, etc (see Table 1).

 

 

Type of recultivation

Type of usage of recultivating lands

Forestry Tree nurseries, general and field afforestation
Agricultural Hayfields, pastures, perennial plantings, ploughed fields, garden plots
Hydroeconomic Water reservoirs of all types, including fish breeding ones
Recreational Water reservoirs, recreation areas, tourist bases, and sport facilities
Sanitary-hygienic Planting of gas-resistant vegetation, temporally abandoned or fixed by technical means plots
Constructional Buildings, facilities, etc. Placement of production dumps

Table 1. The usage of recultivating lands according to the type of recultivation

 

If necessary, the constructional recultivation is carried out. During this stage, buildings, facilities, etc are constructed within the prepared areas.

In Belarus the recultivation of coffins has been begun. The most active work is carried out in the Brest region: 35.5 hectares of open pits were recultivated here in 2010.

 

Recultivated chalk pit in Krasnoselskiy town. Beautiful scenery and wonderful resting place!

The usage of borrow excavations by watering them for the recreational purpose is of the greatest interest for landscape architecture. After their service life has been over, flooded borrow excavations are used as multiple-use reservoirs, dry – as construction sites, ploughed fields, rangelands, and forests. Any flooded open pit can be turned into the habitat of animals and plants, and into a wonderful resting place. Ground water in these open pits can be considered as clean from the sanitary point of view. After the excavation work has been over, this water becomes open.

At the present time the issue about the introduction of technology which will help to identify quarries due to high resolution satellite images is considered by Ministry of Natural Resources.

This system will be implemented with the use of modern server-based GIS and it will help to obtain correct information about quantity and location of such facilities within the territory of the country, keep records of them, plan recultivation properly, detect violations which lead to open pits negative effects to soil, ground waters, and the air. It will be possible to seek and identify open pits due to modern technology. If any violations find, the information will be transmitted to district environmental services, and they will take quick actions.

Today we can"t confine ourselves to the restoration of broken ground, soil fertility, and making of vegetation. It is important to restore all other components of the environment. Complex recultivation or, in other words, recultivation of the environment, is required.

 

The dependence of nature state from human impact

A tree is a token of life. It depends on our actions what nature will remain for the future. MY CHOICE IS TO PRESERVE NATURE!

Make the right choice PRESERVE NATURE – PRESERVE LIFE!

Sidorova Ekaterina

Phones:

+375 17 393 27 88 +375 29 117 38 63 +375 29 671 97 36 +375 29 255 78 33

Address: 177,Nezavisimosti ave., room 1a 220125, Minsk, Belarus
business center PORT

Email: info1@eneca.by